According to the 2017 hypertension guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, limiting daily alcohol intake to 1–2 drinks in men and 1 drink in women has the least impact on lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) among non-pharmacologic interventions in hypertensive individuals, with an anticipated reduction of 4 mm Hg in SBP.
Adoption of a DASH eating plan (a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products, with reduced content of saturated and total fat) represents the most effective dietary intervention for reducing SBP, with an approximate impact of –11 mg Hg.
Weight loss is a core recommendation in overweight individuals, with an expected drop in SBP of about 1 mm Hg per kilogram of weight loss.
Engaging in regular aerobic exercise 90–150 minutes per week is also an effective intervention, leading to expected reductions of 5–8 mm Hg in SBP.
Reduction of dietary sodium intake by at least 1000 mg/day (with an optimal goal of <1500 mg/day) would be expected to reduce SBP by 5–6 mm Hg.